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Here we describe a global species-level data set of key life-history, ecological and geographical traits of all known extant and recently extinct mammals (PanTHERIA) developed for a number of macroecological and macroevolutionary research projects.


Cite as:

E. Jones, Kate; Bielby, Jon; Cardillo, Marcel; A. Fritz, Susanne; O'Dell, Justin; David L. Orme, C.; Safi, Kamran; Sechrest, Wes; H. Boakes, Elizabeth; Carbone, Chris; Connolly, Christina; Cutts, Michael J.; Foster, Janine K.; Grenyer, Richard; Habib, Michael; Plaster, Christopher A.; Price, Samantha A.; Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Rist, Janna; Teacher, Amber; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R. P.; Gittleman, John L.; M. Mace, Georgina; Purvis, Andy (2016): PanTHERIA: a species-level database of life history, ecology, and geography of extant and recently extinct mammals. doi:10.1890/08-1494.1 ;

Creative Commons 0. To the extent possible under law, the authors have waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this data.


Returns a data object that includes attributes for data standardisation.


Data were gathered from the literature for 25 types of ecological and life history information for any extant or recently extinct species within class Mammalia (100740 data lines):

  1. Activity Cycle; 2. Age at Eye Opening; 3. Age at First Birth; 4. Average Lifespan; 5. Body Mass; 6. Diet; 7. Dispersal Age; 8. Adult Limb Length; 9. Gestation Length; 10. Group Composition & Size; 11. Growth Data; 12. Habitat Layer; 13. Head-Body Length; 14. Interbirth Interval; 15. Litter size; 16. Litters Per Year; 17. Maximum Longevity; 18. Metabolic Rate; 19. Migratory Behaviour; 20. Mortality Data; 21. Population Density; 22. Ranging Behaviour; 23. Sexual Maturity Age; 24. Teat Number; and 25. Weaning Age.

30 specific variables (see Class IV, Table 1) were extracted from the above data types for PanTHERIA from a total of 94729 data lines (before error checking). Additionally, 4 variables were derived from extracted variables within PanTHERIA and 19 variables were calculated from other spatial data sources (see Class V, Section C).

see doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3301274.v1 for further information.


Kate E. Jones, Jon Bielby, Marcel Cardillo, Susanne A. Fritz, Justin O'Dell, C. David L. Orme, Kamran Safi, Wes Sechrest, Elizabeth H. Boakes, Chris Carbone, Christina Connolly, Michael J. Cutts, Janine K. Foster, Richard Grenyer, Michael Habib, Christopher A. Plaster, Samantha A. Price, Elizabeth A. Rigby, Janna Rist, Amber Teacher, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, John L. Gittleman, Georgina M. Mace, and Andy Purvis.